Despite Ilkay Gundogan's early opener for City, Newcastle had the champions on the ropes as goals from Miguel Almiron, Callum Wilson and Kieran Trippier had St. James' Park rocking.
But Haaland sparked the revival when he fired home his third goal since joining from Borussia Dortmund before Bernardo Silva's equalizer extended City's unbeaten start to the season.
Pep Guardiola's men move up to second, two points adrift of Arsenal, but missed the chance to open up a seven-point advantage on Liverpool ahead of their trip to Manchester United on Monday.
Newcastle have not splashed the cash of the Saudi sovereign wealth fund to the extent expected in the transfer window with Nick Pope, Matt Targett, and Sven Botman the only signings made by the Magpies.
But they showed they are now a force to be reckoned with, even for the Premier League's elite, by pushing City to the limit.
Newcastle had taken four points from their opening two games without conceding a goal.
That record was wiped out within five minutes as City quickly took control.
The drama did not end there, even if the scoring did, as Trippier had a straight red card for a late lunge on De Bruyne reduced to a yellow after a VAR review.
But City failed to turn their momentum into a winner in the closing stages as they blinked for the first time in their title defence.