The 22-year-old was a surprise selection as coach Otto Addo named his 26-man squad for the tournament, where the Black Stars face Portugal, South Korea and Uruguay in Group H.
Sowah has impressed as the Belgian club reached the last 16 of the Champions League, knocking out Atletico Madrid and Bayer Leverkusen in the process.
There was also the first call-up for midfielder Salis Abdul Samed, 22, who has been a regular for Racing Lens this season as they have moved to second in the French Ligue 1 standings.
Ghana have been forced to name three inexperienced goalkeepers after their first two choices – Jojo Wollacott from Charlton Athletic and South Africa-based Richard Ofori – were both injured in club action.
The squad will be captained by Dede Ayew, who was part of the team that reached the quarterfinals in South Africa in 2010 – only the third time an African nation has reached the last eight of a World Cup.
Goalkeepers: Lawrence Ati-Zigi (St Gallen), Danlad Ibrahim (Asante Kotoko), Manaf Nurudeen (Eupen)
Defenders: Joseph Aidoo (Celta Vigo), Daniel Amartey (Leicester City), Abdul-Rahman Baba (Reading), Alexander Djiku (Racing Strasbourg), Tariq Lamptey (Brighton & Hove Albion), Gideon Mensah (AJ Auxerre), Denis Odoi (Club Brugge), Mohammed Salisu (Southampton), Alidu Seidu (Clermont Foot)
Midfielders: Andre Ayew (Al Sadd), Mohammed Kudus (Ajax Amsterdam), Daniel-Kofi Kyereh (SC Freiburg), Elisha Owusu (Gent), Thomas Partey (Arsenal), Salis Abdul Samed (Racing Lens)
Forwards: Daniel Afriyie (Hearts of Oak), Jordan Ayew (Crystal Palace), Osman Bukari (Red Star Belgrade), Issahaku Abdul Fatawu (Sporting Lisbon), Antoine Semenyo (Bristol City), Kamal Sowah (Club Brugge), Kamaldeen Sulemana (Stade Rennes), Inaki Williams (Athletic Bilbao).