Diego Simeone's side are now just one point ahead of Real Madrid but remain 13 points behind league leaders Barcelona, who are on the verge of clinching the title.
The match saw Antoine Griezmann continue his impressive form, scoring two goals to give Atletico an early lead. The French forward has now scored 13 goals and provided 13 assists this season in LaLiga, helping Atletico become the best-performing team in the division in 2023.
Alvaro Morata and Yannick Carrasco also scored for Atletico, while Chucky Lozano netted a consolation goal for Cadiz. Nahuel Molina completed the scoring for Atletico, who, despite being out of the title race, were delighted to have overtaken their rivals Real Madrid.
Meanwhile, Valencia earned a hard-fought 1-1 draw against fifth-placed Villarreal, with Samuel Lino scoring the equalizer. Getafe, who are battling against relegation, secured a 1-0 victory over Celta Vigo, thanks to Enes Unal's early penalty.
The draw was a setback for Villarreal's hopes of securing Champions League qualification, leaving them seven points behind Real Sociedad in fourth place, who beat champions Real Madrid on Tuesday.