The match was abandoned in the 75th minute when Nice supporters threw water bottles as Marseille were about to take a corner.
Visiting forward Dimitri Payet hurled a bottle back at them, leading to a full-scale brawl as fans rushed onto the field.
The match is set to be played at a neutral location and Ligue 1 said the venue will be determined at a later date.
Nice were docked two points, one of which is suspended, and the French professional league (LFP) had ordered the club to play their next home game behind closed doors, pending the results of the probe.
Marseille defender Alvaro Gonzalez was banned for two games for his role in the fracas. Payet was handed a suspended one-match ban while the club's physio Pablo Fernandez was given a nine-month touchline suspension.