Brume finished second behind German Malaika Mihambo who claimed her second successive World Championship Gold medal with a 7.12m finish.
Brume's leap ended at 7.02m and the silver was an improvement for her, who claimed Bronze last time out.
This time Brazilian Leticia Oro Melo claimed Bronze with a 6.89m finish.
Mihambo will remain Brume's barrier from a Gold Medal finish given that at the Tokyo Olympics, she beat Brume to the Gold.
Brume follows Tobi Amusa who finished first in the 100m hurdle race with a gold medal.
These victories gain two medals for Nigeria -- one Gold, one silver.