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Borno state
  • Date Created February 03, 1976
  • Capital Maiduguri
  • Governor Babagana Umara Zulum
  • Land Area 57,799 km2 (22,316 sq mi)
  • Population 4,171,104 (2006 census)
  • GDP $5.18 billion

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History of Borno


Borno State has a long and rich history dating back to the 7th century. The Kanuri people, who are the dominant ethnic group in the state, established the Kanem-Bornu Empire in the 9th century, which lasted for over a millennium and was one of the largest and most powerful states in West Africa during its time. The empire's capital was located in what is now the city of Maiduguri, the capital of Borno State.

In the 19th century, the empire began to decline and eventually fell under the control of the British colonial authorities in 1901. Borno State was then merged with other British-administered territories to form the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria.

After Nigeria gained independence from Britain in 1960, Borno State was created in 1976 from the northeastern part of former Bauchi State. Since then, Borno State has been plagued by ongoing violence and insecurity caused by the Boko Haram insurgency, which began in 2009. The insurgency has resulted in the displacement of large numbers of people and has had a devastating impact on the state's economy and social fabric. Despite this, the state continues to be an important center of culture and history in Nigeria.

Borno State is a state located in northeastern Nigeria. The capital and largest city is Maiduguri. The state was formed in 1976 from the northeastern part of former Bauchi State. It is the homeland of the Kanuri people and also has significant populations of other ethnic groups such as the Shuwa Arabs, Marghi, and Fulani. Borno is known for its rich history and culture, and is also plagued by ongoing insecurity and violence caused by the Boko Haram insurgency.


People
The people of Borno State are diverse, with a number of ethnic groups represented in the state. The Kanuri people are the largest and most dominant ethnic group in the state and make up about 50% of the population. They have a rich cultural heritage and have traditionally been involved in trade and agriculture.

Other ethnic groups present in Borno State include the Shuwa Arabs, who are primarily engaged in pastoralism and trade; the Marghi, who are primarily farmers; and the Fulani, who are primarily involved in pastoralism.

There are also smaller communities of Tiv, Jukun, and other ethnic groups in the state. Despite the diversity of the population, Borno State is known for its strong sense of community and mutual cooperation among its residents.


Cultural Heritage And Festivals
Borno State has a rich cultural heritage that is deeply rooted in its history and the traditions of its various ethnic groups.

One of the most prominent examples of the state's cultural heritage is the Kanuri people's traditional architecture, which is characterized by the use of mud and thatch in the construction of houses, palaces, and other buildings. The Kanuri people also have a rich tradition of oral literature, including poetry, proverbs, and folktales, which are passed down from generation to generation.

The state also has a rich tradition of art and crafts, which include the production of pottery, basketry, textiles, and jewelry. Borno is also known for its rich traditional music and dances, which are performed during cultural festivals and other ceremonies.

The state is also a major center of Islamic scholarship in Nigeria, and is home to many important Islamic institutions and scholars. Borno State is also known for its historic trade routes, and has been known for centuries as a major center for trade and commerce.

Overall, Borno state cultural heritage is a reflection of the state's history and the diverse ethnic groups that have lived there over time.
Borno State has a number of festivals that reflect its rich cultural heritage. Some of the most notable festivals include:

Durbar Festival: This is one of the most popular festivals in Borno State and is celebrated by the Kanuri people. It is a colorful event that features horse and camel parades, traditional dances, and music.

Gerewol Festival: This festival is celebrated by the Wodaabe people and is a courtship festival where young men and women dress up in traditional costumes and compete for the attention of potential partners.

Eids: Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha are two of the most important Islamic festivals celebrated in Borno State. They are marked by prayers, family gatherings, and the exchange of gifts.

Wodaabe Fesitval: This festival is celebrated by the Wodaabe people, and it's a celebration of their culture and heritage. It's a time for the young people to come together and participate in traditional dances, music and games.

Kala Festival: This festival is celebrated by the Kanuri people and is a time for traditional rituals, dances, and music. It is also a time for the community to come together to honor their ancestors and to celebrate the harvest.

These festivals are an important part of the cultural heritage of Borno State and are celebrated by the people of the state with great enthusiasm and joy.


Tribes
Borno State is home to a number of different ethnic groups, also known as tribes. Some of the major tribes in the state include:

Kanuri: This is the largest and most dominant ethnic group in Borno State, making up about 50% of the population. They have a rich cultural heritage and have traditionally been involved in trade and agriculture.

Shuwa Arab: This group is primarily engaged in pastoralism and trade. They have a strong sense of community and cooperation.

Marghi: This group is primarily farmers. They are known for their hardworking nature.

Fulani: This group is primarily involved in pastoralism. They are known for their nomadic lifestyle and their strong connection to their cattle.

Tiv: This group is primarily farmers. They are known for their rich cultural heritage and their traditional dances and music.

Jukun: This group is primarily farmers. They are known for their intricate pottery and their traditional art and crafts.

These are some of the major tribes in Borno State, although there are also smaller communities of other ethnic groups in the state. Despite the diversity of the population, Borno State is known for its strong sense of community and mutual cooperation among its residents.


Location
Borno State is located in the northeastern region of Nigeria. It is bordered by Yobe State to the north, Chad to the northeast, and Cameroon to the east. To the south, it is bordered by Adamawa and Gombe States, and to the west, it is bordered by Bauchi and Yobe States. The capital city of the state is Maiduguri.

The state covers an area of about 69,442 square kilometers and has a population of about 4.1 million people. Borno State is known for its diverse landscapes, which include savannas, woodlands, and wetlands. It is also home to a number of important wildlife reserves and protected areas, including the Chad Basin National Park and the Yankari National Park.

Borno State is a major center of Islamic scholarship in Nigeria and is also known for its historic trade routes and its rich cultural heritage. It is also one of the most affected states by the Boko Haram insurgency and the humanitarian crisis that followed.


Trade
Borno State has a long history of trade and commerce. Historically, the state has been an important center for trade and commerce, dating back to the days of the trans-Saharan trade routes. This is due to the state's strategic location at the crossroads of trade routes connecting the northern and central regions of Nigeria with Chad, Niger, and Cameroon.

During the pre-colonial era, Borno state was known as a major center for the trade of salt, slaves, and other goods. The trade of these goods was mainly controlled by the Kanuri people and other ethnic groups in the state.

In modern times, Borno state's economy is mainly based on agriculture and trade. The state is known for its large-scale production of groundnuts, millet, sorghum, and other crops. It also has a significant amount of livestock, including cattle, sheep, and goats. The state also has a growing cottage industry for the production of textiles, pottery, and other traditional crafts.

The state also has a growing tourism industry, with a number of national parks and reserves, including the Chad Basin National Park and the Yankari National Park. However, the security situation in the state, particularly the Boko Haram insurgency, has had a significant negative impact on trade and other economic activities in the state.

Notable Places
Borno State is home to a number of notable places that reflect its rich cultural heritage and history. Some of the most notable places in the state include:

Maiduguri: The capital city of Borno State, Maiduguri is an important center of Islamic scholarship and culture. It is also home to a number of historic sites and monuments, including the Shehu of Borno's Palace and the Borno Museum.

Baga: This historic town is located on the shores of Lake Chad and is known for its traditional fishing communities and its stunning landscapes.

Kukawa: This historic town was once the capital of the Borno Empire and is home to a number of important cultural and historical sites, including the palace of the Shehu of Borno and the Kukawa Museum.

Dikwa: This town is located in the northeastern part of the state and is known for its historic trade routes and its traditional markets.

Gamboru: This town is located on the border with Cameroon and is known for its vibrant markets and its traditional crafts, including pottery and textiles.

Chad Basin National Park: This national park is located in the state and is known for its diverse wildlife and its beautiful landscapes. It is also home to a number of important bird species, including the marabou stork and the white-headed vulture.

Yankari National Park: This national park is located in the state and is known for its hot springs and its diverse wildlife. It is also home to a number of important bird species, including the black-necked crane and the white-bellied go-away bird.

These are some of the most notable places in Borno State, although there are also many other places of interest in the state that reflect its rich cultural heritage and history.


Traditional Rulers
Borno State, like many other states in Nigeria, has a traditional rulership system where traditional rulers are responsible for maintaining law and order and resolving disputes within their communities. Some of the notable traditional rulers in Borno State include:

The Shehu of Borno: The Shehu of Borno is the paramount traditional ruler of the Kanuri people, the largest ethnic group in the state. The Shehu is also the head of the Borno Emirate Council and is considered to be the spiritual leader of the Kanuri people.

The Lamido of Adamawa: The Lamido of Adamawa is the paramount traditional ruler of the Fulfulde people, who are found in the southern part of Borno State.

The Emir of Gwoza: The Emir of Gwoza is the traditional ruler of the Gwoza people, who are found in the southern part of the state.

The Emir of Biu: The Emir of Biu is the traditional ruler of the Biu people, who are found in the southern part of the state.

The Emir of Shani: The Emir of Shani is the traditional ruler of the Shani people, who are found in the northern part of the state.

The Emir of Askira: The Emir of Askira is the traditional ruler of the Askira people, who are found in the central part of the state.

These are some of the notable traditional rulers in Borno State, although there are also many other traditional rulers in the state who play important roles in maintaining law and order and resolving disputes within their communities.

Educational Institutions
Borno State, like many other states in Nigeria, has a number of educational institutions that offer a wide range of educational opportunities for its residents. Some of the notable educational institutions in Borno State include:

University of Maiduguri: This is the oldest and most prestigious university in the state. It offers undergraduate and graduate programs in a wide range of disciplines, including the arts, sciences, engineering, medicine, and education.

Ramat Polytechnic: This polytechnic is located in Maiduguri, the state capital. It offers undergraduate and diploma programs in a wide range of disciplines, including engineering, business studies, and computer science.

Borno State University: This is a new state-owned university located in Bama, Borno State. It offers undergraduate and graduate programs in a wide range of disciplines.

College of Education, Maiduguri: This is a tertiary institution that offers undergraduate and graduate programs in education.

Borno State College of Legal and Islamic Studies: This is a tertiary institution that offers undergraduate and graduate programs in law and Islamic studies.

Borno State College of Agriculture: This is a tertiary institution that offers undergraduate and graduate programs in agriculture and related disciplines.

Borno State School of Health Technology: This is a tertiary institution that offers undergraduate and graduate programs in health-related disciplines.

These are some of the notable educational institutions in Borno State, although there are also many other educational institutions in the state that offer a wide range of educational opportunities for its residents.

Notable People
Borno State, like many other states in Nigeria, has produced a number of notable people who have made significant contributions in different fields. Some of the notable people from Borno State include:

Kashim Ibrahim-Imam: He is a retired Nigerian Army Major General, who served as the Military Governor of Borno State from July 1975 to February 1976 during the military regime of General Murtala Ramat Mohammed.

Muhammadu Inuwa Idris: He is a Nigerian businessman and philanthropist who was the Governor of Borno State from 1999 to 2007.

Maitama Sule: He was a Nigerian diplomat, political leader and philanthropist. He was a member of the Nigerian Federal Executive Council under the military regime of General Sani Abacha and later served as the Minister of Foreign Affairs under President Olusegun Obasanjo.

Kashim Shettima: He is a Nigerian politician who served as the Governor of Borno State from 2011 to 2019.

Ahmed Zannah: He is a Nigerian film director, actor and writer. He is known for his critically acclaimed films such as "The Last Flight to Abuja" and "93 Days".

Bukar Abba Ibrahim: He is a Nigerian lawyer, politician and senator who represented Borno Central in the Nigerian Senate between 1999 and 2007.

Bulama Mali Gubio: He is a Nigerian businessman, philanthropist and politician who was a member of the Nigerian Federal House of Representatives representing Gubio/Magumeri Federal Constituency of Borno State.

Alhaji Aliyu Kama: He is a Nigerian businessman and philanthropist who is the founder of Kama Group of Companies, which is one of the largest indigenous companies in Nigeria.

These are some of the notable people from Borno State, although there are many other people from the state who have made significant contributions in different fields.


 

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