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Cross River state
  • Date Created May 27, 1967
  • Capital Calabar
  • Governor Benedict Ayade
  • Land Area 20,156 km2 (7,782 sq mi)
  • Population 3,737,517 (2006 census)
  • GDP $15.56 billion

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History of Cross River

Cross River State is a state in southeastern Nigeria. It is located in the Niger Delta region and its capital is Calabar. The state is known for its rich culture and tourism potential, with famous attractions including Obudu Cattle Ranch, the Drill Ranch, and the Cross River National Park, which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The state is also home to several ethnic groups, including the Efik, Ejagham, and the Bekwarra.
Cross River State has a rich history that dates back to pre-colonial times. The state is home to several ethnic groups, including the Efik, Ejagham, and the Bekwarra, who have lived in the area for centuries.

During the colonial period, the area that is now Cross River State was initially part of the Oil Rivers Protectorate, which was established by the British in 1885. The protectorate was later renamed the Niger Coast Protectorate, and in 1901 it became part of the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria.

After Nigeria gained independence in 1960, the state was first known as South Eastern State and later, Cross River State in 1967.

Throughout the post-colonial period, Cross River State has played a significant role in the political and economic development of Nigeria. The state is known for its rich culture and tourism potential, with famous attractions including Obudu Cattle Ranch, the Drill Ranch, and the Cross River National Park, which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

In recent years, the state government has made efforts to promote tourism and economic development through the development of infrastructure, such as the construction of airports, seaports, and roads.


Location
Cross River State is located in the southeastern region of Nigeria. It is bordered by the states of Akwa Ibom to the west, Benue to the north, and Ebonyi to the northeast. To the south and east, it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the countries of Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. The state covers an area of approximately 20,156 square kilometers, and its capital and largest city is Calabar.


People
Cross River State is home to a diverse population of ethnic groups. The major ethnic groups in the state include the Efik, Ejagham, and the Bekwarra.

The Efik people are one of the largest ethnic groups in the state and are known for their rich cultural heritage and traditions. They are primarily located in the Calabar and Bakassi areas of the state and are known for their traditional dances, music, and masquerades.

The Ejagham people are also found in the state, primarily in the northern parts of the state. They are known for their traditional art, which includes intricate carvings and sculptures.

The Bekwarra people are known for their rich cultural heritage and are located primarily in the northern part of the state. They are known for their traditional dances, music and festivals.

Other ethnic groups found in the state include the Ikom, Oroko, and the Ukelle people. The state also has a significant population of non-indigenous people, including Yoruba, Igbo, and Hausa people.

The official language of Cross River State is English, however, Efik, Ejagham, and other local languages are widely spoken by the people.


Cultural Heritage
Cross River State is known for its rich cultural heritage and diverse ethnic groups. The state is home to several traditional festivals and ceremonies, which showcase the rich cultural heritage of the people.

One of the most famous festivals in the state is the Calabar Carnival, also known as the "Africa's biggest street party". The carnival is an annual event and features a colorful parade of masqueraders, dancers, and musicians from across the state. It is a blend of both traditional and modern cultural elements, and it is meant to showcase the rich cultural heritage of the state.

Another important festival in the state is the Osim Idim festival, which is celebrated by the Efik people. The festival is celebrated to mark the end of the farming season, and it is a time for the people to give thanks to the gods for a bountiful harvest. During the festival, traditional dances, music, and masquerades are performed, and there is also a traditional wrestling competition.

The state is also home to the Oro festival, which is celebrated by the Oroko people. The festival is a time for the people to give thanks to the gods for a bountiful harvest, and it is celebrated with traditional dances, music, and masquerades.

Other festivals and ceremonies in the state include the Efut Ekpe festival, celebrated by the Efut people, and the Bekwarra New Yam festival, celebrated by the Bekwarra people.

The state also has several cultural centers and museums that showcase the rich cultural heritage of the people, such as the Calabar National Museum and the Efik Heritage Museum.

Overall, Cross River State is rich in cultural heritage and its diverse ethnic groups contribute to a vibrant cultural scene in the state.
Cross River State is known for its rich cultural heritage and diverse ethnic groups. The state is home to several traditional festivals and ceremonies that showcase the rich cultural heritage of the people. Some of the festivals celebrated in the state include:

Calabar Carnival: Also known as the "Africa's biggest street party," the Calabar Carnival is an annual event that features a colorful parade of masqueraders, dancers, and musicians from across the state. It is a blend of both traditional and modern cultural elements, and it is meant to showcase the rich cultural heritage of the state.

Osim Idim: This festival is celebrated by the Efik people to mark the end of the farming season. During the festival, traditional dances, music, and masquerades are performed, and there is also a traditional wrestling competition.

Oro Festival: This festival is celebrated by the Oroko people and is a time for the people to give thanks to the gods for a bountiful harvest. It is celebrated with traditional dances, music, and masquerades.

Efut Ekpe: This festival is celebrated by the Efut people and it is a time for the people to give thanks to the gods for a bountiful harvest. It is celebrated with traditional dances, music, and masquerades.

Bekwarra New Yam Festival: This festival is celebrated by the Bekwarra people and is a time for the people to give thanks to the gods for a bountiful harvest.

Owa-Obini: This festival is celebrated by the Obudu people. The festival is celebrated to mark the end of the farming season, and it is a time for the people to give thanks to the gods for a bountiful harvest.

Akwanshi Festival: This festival is celebrated by the Akwanshi people, it is a time for the people to give thanks to the gods for a bountiful harvest.

These festivals are just a few of the many traditional festivals that are celebrated in Cross River State, showcasing the rich cultural heritage of the people and providing an opportunity for visitors to experience the cultural diversity of the state.


Tribes
Cross River State is home to a diverse population of ethnic groups. Some of the major tribes in the state include:

Efik: The Efik people are one of the largest ethnic groups in the state and are known for their rich cultural heritage and traditions. They are primarily located in the Calabar and Bakassi areas of the state and are known for their traditional dances, music, and masquerades.

Ejagham: The Ejagham people are also found in the state, primarily in the northern parts of the state. They are known for their traditional art, which includes intricate carvings and sculptures.

Bekwarra: The Bekwarra people are known for their rich cultural heritage and are located primarily in the northern part of the state. They are known for their traditional dances, music and festivals.

Ikom: The Ikom people are known for their rich cultural heritage and are located primarily in the northern part of the state. They are known for their traditional dances, music and festivals.

Oroko: The Oroko people are known for their rich cultural heritage and are located primarily in the northern part of the state. They are known for their traditional dances, music and festivals.

Ukelle: The Ukelle people are known for their rich cultural heritage and are located primarily in the northern part of the state. They are known for their traditional dances, music and festivals.

Obudu: The Obudu people are known for their rich cultural heritage and are located primarily in the northern part of the state. They are known for their traditional dances, music and festivals.

Akwanshi: The Akwanshi people are known for their rich cultural heritage and are located primarily in the northern part of the state. They are known for their traditional dances, music and festivals.

These are some of the major tribes in Cross River State, but there are many other ethnic groups also found in the state, each with their own unique culture, language, and customs.


Trades
Cross River State is known for its diverse economy and is home to a variety of industries. Some of the major trades and industries in the state include:

Agriculture: The state is known for its rich agricultural resources and is a major producer of crops such as cocoa, palm oil, rubber, and timber.

Tourism: Cross River State is home to several tourist attractions, such as the Obudu Cattle Ranch, the Tinapa Business and Leisure Resort, and the Calabar Carnival, which attracts thousands of visitors annually.

Manufacturing: The state is home to several manufacturing industries, such as food processing, textiles, and furniture manufacturing.

Oil and Gas: The state has several oil and gas deposits, and there are several oil and gas companies operating in the state.

Fishing: The state has a long coastal line and is known for its abundant fishing resources. Fishing is a major industry in the state, and the state government is also promoting it as a means of livelihood for its people

Mining: The state is rich in mineral resources such as limestone, granite, and bitumen, and there are several mining companies operating in the state.

Services sector: Cross River State has a vibrant service sector with several banks and other financial institutions, insurance companies and other service providers.

These are some of the major trades and industries found in Cross River State, but there are other opportunities for economic activities within the state. The state government is also promoting entrepreneurship as a means of creating jobs and wealth for the people.

Oil and Gas
Cross River State is located in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, which is known for its abundant oil and gas resources. The state has several oil and gas deposits, and there are several oil and gas companies operating in the state.

The oil and gas industry is a major contributor to the state's economy and is a major source of revenue for the state government. The state government has also implemented policies to ensure that the local communities benefit from the oil and gas resources in the state.

The state is also home to several oil and gas-related facilities, such as the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) Calabar Refinery, the Calabar Free Trade Zone, and the Calabar Oil and Gas Industrial Park. These facilities are intended to attract investment and create jobs in the oil and gas industry.

However, the oil and gas industry in the state also has its challenges. The state has experienced several oil spills and gas flaring, which have caused environmental degradation and affected the livelihoods of local communities. The state government has been working with the federal government and oil and gas companies to address these challenges and ensure that the industry is sustainable.


Notable Places
Cross River State is known for its diverse culture, rich history, and beautiful natural scenery. Some of the notable places in the state include:

Obudu Cattle Ranch: This is a popular tourist destination located in the northern part of the state. The ranch features a resort, a golf course, and a cable car that offers a panoramic view of the ranch.

Tinapa Business and Leisure Resort: This is a popular tourist destination located in the state capital, Calabar. The resort features a shopping mall, a cinema, and a water park, as well as several other attractions.

Calabar Carnival: This is an annual event held in Calabar, which attracts thousands of visitors from all over the world. The carnival features a parade of colorful floats, traditional dances, and music performances.

Drill Ranch: This is a popular tourist destination located in the northern part of the state. The ranch features a sanctuary for drills and other endangered primates, as well as several other attractions.

Calabar Slave Museum: This museum is located in Calabar and is dedicated to preserving the history of the transatlantic slave trade.

Calabar Marina: This is a popular tourist destination located in Calabar, which is known for its beautiful waterfront and several other attractions.

Mary Slessor's House: This is a popular tourist destination located in Calabar. It is the former residence of Mary Slessor, a Scottish missionary who lived in the state for over 30 years.

Calabar Qua River: The Qua River is located in Calabar and is known for its beautiful scenery and several other attractions.

These are some of the notable places in Cross River State, but there are many other places of interest in the state, each with its own unique culture, history, and attractions.


Traditional Rulers
Cross River State is home to several traditional rulers who play an important role in the cultural and political life of the state. Some of the notable traditional rulers in the state include:

The Efiks: The Efiks are one of the major ethnic groups in the state, and their traditional ruler is the Obong of Calabar.

The Ibibios: The Ibibios are one of the major ethnic groups in the state, and their traditional ruler is the Eteidung of Calabar.

The Annangs: The Annangs are one of the major ethnic groups in the state, and their traditional ruler is the Akai-Ibom of Annang.

The Efuts: The Efuts are one of the major ethnic groups in the state, and their traditional ruler is the Efut of Calabar.

The Ekoi: The Ekoi are one of the major ethnic groups in the state, and their traditional ruler is the Ekoi of Obudu.

The Bekwarra: The Bekwarra are one of the major ethnic groups in the state, and their traditional ruler is the Bekwarra of Bekwarra.

The Bakor: The Bakor are one of the major ethnic groups in the state, and their traditional ruler is the Bakor of Bakor.

These are some of the notable traditional rulers in Cross River State, but there are many other traditional rulers in the state, each with their own unique cultural and political roles. Traditional rulers in the state are respected and have a great influence over their people.


Educational Institutions
Cross River State is home to several educational institutions, including universities, polytechnics, and colleges of education. Some notable educational institutions in the state include:

University of Calabar: This is a public university located in Calabar, which is the state capital. The university was established in 1975 and is one of the oldest universities in Nigeria.

Cross River University of Technology (CRUTECH): This is a public university located in Calabar, which was established in 2002. The university offers undergraduate and postgraduate programs in various fields of study.

University of Africa, Toru-Orua: This is a private university located in Toru-Orua, which was established in 2005. The university offers undergraduate and postgraduate programs in various fields of study.

Calabar Polytechnic: This is a public polytechnic located in Calabar, which was established in 1977. The polytechnic offers diploma and certificate programs in various fields of study.

College of Education, Akamkpa: This is a public college of education located in Akamkpa, which was established in 1979. The college offers teacher training programs at the undergraduate level.

College of Education, Ekiadolor: This is a public college of education located in Ekiadolor, which was established in 1979. The college offers teacher training programs at the undergraduate level.

These are some of the notable educational institutions in Cross River State, but there are many other educational institutions in the state, each with their own unique programs and facilities. The state government has also made efforts to improve the standard of education in the state by providing grants and scholarships for students and upgrading the facilities of existing institutions.

Notable People
Cross River State is home to several notable people who have made significant contributions in various fields such as politics, entertainment, sports, and more. Some of the notable people from Cross River State include:

Donald Duke: He was the Governor of Cross River State from 1999 to 2007. He is a prominent politician and businessman and he is known for his efforts to promote tourism in the state.

Joseph Wayas: He was a Nigerian politician and statesman who served as the President of the Senate of Nigeria between 1979 and 1983. He was also a member of the Federal Executive Council and the Minister of Interior.

Patience Jonathan: She is a former First Lady of Nigeria and the wife of former President Goodluck Jonathan. She is a prominent figure in Nigerian politics and is actively involved in several humanitarian and philanthropic initiatives.

Genevieve Nnaji: She is a Nigerian actress, producer, and director. She has won several awards for her performances and is considered one of the most successful actresses in Nigeria.

Victor Moses: He is a professional football player who has played for several top clubs in Europe, including Chelsea and Liverpool. He has also represented the Nigerian national team and is considered one of the best Nigerian players of his generation.

These are just a few notable people from Cross River State, but there are many other accomplished individuals from the state who have made significant contributions in various fields. The state has produced many accomplished people in various fields, including politics, entertainment, sports, and more.


 

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